As an Atlanta dental malpractice attorney, I receive calls every day from dental patients who have been injured due to dental procedures. Almost all of the dental nerve injuries that are actionable dental malpractice claims involved the trigeminal nerves of the face, mouth, neck and jaw.
The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves and has three major divisions: the opthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve or inferior alveolar nerve (hereafter referred to as the “mandibular nerve” for simplicity and consistency) (V3). A nerve outside of the central nervous system is called a peripheral nerve. The mandibular nerve is a peripheral nerve which is the largest of the trigeminal nerves and is the most common branch injured following dental implant surgery. While the mandibular nerve is technically outside of the central nervous system, most of my clients report debilitating pain in parts of their face and head served by the mandibular nerve. This nerve carries sensory information from the lower lip, chin, lower teeth, gums, the lower jaw, and, at times, can extend up and into the ear on the side of the face affected by a dental implant injury, for example.
The mandibular nerve also contains motor fibers for supply of the muscles for eating (mastication), muscles of the ear and muscles of the soft palate. However, these motor branches and many of the sensory fibers to the external ear are rarely injured during implant surgery because these motor fibers are separated from the V3 branch of the trigeminal nerve prior to its exit from the foramen ovale of the skull and many of the sensory fibers enter the nerve above the lingula of the ramus. A V3 injury in dental implant surgery usually occurs after the nerve enters the lingula of the mandibular ramus and anywhere along its pathway in the jaw and/or its exit from the mental foramen in the chin area of the jaw.